Pepper Is A Pinhead; Schlitze Was The Inspiration

A year ago—maybe longer—I wrote a post about a genetic condition commonly known as “Pinhead Syndrome”.    And since the premier of American Horror Story: Asylum its been receiving renewed interest.

Actress, Naomi Grossman endures grueling hours of special make up,  putting on oversized clothes and prosthetic application to transform into Pepper, a patient incarcerated in the edifice which serves as this season’s main character:  an asylum called Briarcliff.   Pepper is  microcephalic.

In the simplest of terms,  the character  has a considerably smaller head than normal, due to a smaller than normal brain case.   She  seems  gentle and playful but as we learned in the first episode this season, she has a very violent past.  She drowned her nephew and cut off his ears.  But we later learn, that her brother in-law committed the murder and mutilation and blamed it on her because of her disability. 

Having microcephaly doesn’t automatically make one homicidal, and from what I understand, won’t necessarily make the patient mentally disabled.     According to the Cleveland Clinic, microcephaly is often associated with some degree of mental retardation. However, in 15 percent of the cases, a child born with this anomaly, will have normal intelligence.   Microcephaly is also rare,  occurring in one out of every 6200 to 8500 births.   The causes can be a number of things, including genetic mutation, pre-natal diabetes or malnutrition to mercury poisoning and drinking or the use of drugs during a pregnancy.

Pepper was no doubt based on one of the world’s most famous ‘pinheads”, Schlitze , who co-starred in Tod Browning’s original American horror story, the 1932 film “Freaks”.   More about this person a littler later on in this post.


The cast was almost completely composed of actual carnival performers.   Browning took the exceptional step of casting real people with deformities and what have you,  as the eponymous sideshow “freaks,” rather than using costumes and makeup.    This gave the movie an incredible, almost tactile realness.   It’s an amazing movie, really.

Here’s a sampling:


Interesting isn’t it that with their monotonous chant, the “freaks”  decided to accept the “normal” looking woman?   You might ask, is this some parallel universe?  No, it’s simply their everyday world where “normal” is different and being different is quite the norm.

And it was a world Browning knew very well.  He’d been a member of a traveling circus  in his early years, and much of the film was drawn from his personal experiences. In the film, the physically deformed “freaks” are inherently trusting and honorable people, while the real monsters are the “normal” members of the circus C0-stars in this celluloid epic  include Olga Roderick as the bearded lady.   Frances O’Connor and Martha Morris are the Armless Wonders.   Daisy and Violet Hilton (no relation to Paris or Nikki—I don’t think) star as the conjoined twins they were in life.


As you can see,  the resemblance  of  AHS’s Pepper  to Schlitze is amazing.  The show’s makeup artist,  Christien Tinsley is a genius.

Schlitze’s true identity is a bit vague, but most believe that this female looking, dress wearing entity was born very much a  male, named  Simon Metz on September 10, 1901 in the Bronx. His birth parents remain mysterious figures to this day and young Simon was likely ‘sold’ to the owner of some circus sideshow because of a rather obvious birth defect.

Schlitze was born microcephalic, and had the cognitive abilities of a four-year old.

Nowadays, a movie like this wouldn’t stand a chance of even getting green lit, much less having its script read by any reputable studio brass.   And if it ever got to distribution in theaters…even the art house ones, it would probably get shut down by angry, torch-bearing protesters and run out-of-town on a rail, but back in the late 1800’s through the early 1950’s,  the display and exhibiting of ‘pinheads’ and other human anomalies was nothing new and in fact, considered entertainment.   In the 1800’s pinheads were often exhibited as a species apart from man, as the last members of an ancient race – usually Aztecs – and on occasion they were billed as being from another planet.

During his lifetime, Schlitze was exhibited publicly as all of these things.    For much of his career, he rarely spoke and was almost always billed as female. This was mostly due to his dress-like attire which was actually an attire choice based purely on the fact that he was completely incontinent.  A dress allowed him more rapid access to do what …well, what needs to transpire when one is incontinent.

While popular with crowds, Schlitze’s biggest fans were his colleagues and caretakers. To sum up the reason for this fondness is difficult, but the wonderment Schlitze held for the daily mundane, his childlike exuberance, his eternal innocence greatly influenced those around him. Schlitze was often called ‘a ray of sunshine’, and his smile and unconditional love shined on all those around him.

During his long career Schlitze entertained millions of carnival and film goers with his antics. He was perhaps best known for his role in Freaks, – though he also appeared in Island Of Lost Souls opposite Charles Laughton and Bela Lugosi. As a sideshow entertainer, iwas employed by every major name in the business. Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus, Clyde Beatty Circus, Tom Mix Circus, West Coast Shows, Vanteen & Lee Circus Sideshow, and the Dobritsch International Circus all had Schlitze in their shows at one point or another.

Although Schlitze had no known biological family, during the 1936 season of the Tom Mix Circus sideshow George Surtees, a chimpanzee trainer, became  his legal guardian. Surtees was, by all accounts, a caring and loving guardian but when he passed in the early 1960’s his daughter had Schlitze committed to a Los Angeles County Hospital.

Schlitze remained committed for some time, until he was recognized by sword swallower, Bill Unks, who just happened to be working at the hospital during the off-season when he noticed a very sad and depressed Schlitze.  Apparently, Schlitze missed the carnival, his friends and the adoration of the crowds. Hospital authorities eventually determined that the best care for Schlitze would be to make him a ward of Unks’ employer, showman Sam Kortes, and return to the sideshow, which he did for a time.


I remember seeing Freaks on an edition of Night Flight back in the early  80’s.   Remember Night Flight?   It was the forerunner to MTV in many ways and in many ways, it was so much better.
But that’s how I first became introduced to Schlitze and Freaks .  It wasn’t because I got some rise out of Hollywood’s blatant exploitation of these poor people, but rather, because it was hard for me to wrap my head around these living, breathing anomalies and their own very special contribution to humanity.   Their dynamic individuality and the humanity  athey had with each other was absolutely amazing to watch.   They were so normal and dignified, even in the midst of being so abnormal and undignified.    I mean think about it:  a man with a tiny head, a female with a chin bearing lycanthropic-looking fur and a woman who was nothing more than a limbless trunk with a head attached, tends to make one think otherwise.

Film students know Schlitze and the strange cast of Freaks.   The movie is required viewing in many film schools in this country.  In 1994, Freaks was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry as being  “culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant”.

And Schlitze contributed to that as well.

As he entered the autumn of his life, he lived in a small apartment near MacArthur Park Lake in downtown Los Angeles.    Schlitze loved being out doors and could often be seen feeding the pigeons and ducks with his guardian, even performing a bit  for people as they passed by.

He continued to enchant crowds until his death in 1971 at the age of 71.  His death certificate says he died due to bronchial pneumonia brought on by Medullary Depression.    He was buried in an unmarked grave at the Queen of Heaven Cemetery in Roland Hills, California.    Schlitze’s grave remained unmarked until August 2008, when members of the website, raised almost $400 to purchase him a proper headstone…and as promised in the video, a big hat with an even bigger feather.
May “Schlitze Surtees” rest in peace.
Photo courtesy

I would suggest seeing Freaks, if you can.  It’s an interesting, albeit a rather embarrassing part of our cinematic history, but vital to understand how and why these people were so misunderstood and how and why our ignorance and fear prompted our mistreatment of them.

The good news is that we’ve made tremendous headway since this movie was made 79 years ago.    We’ve learned tolerance and we now understand the physical ramifications of genetic mutations.   There are government programs and research facilities that have been created to combat these rare birth anomalies.   For those afflicted with them, there are now special homes and assisted living centers where these people can learn and thrive

Asylums such Briarcliff  though without the early 1960’s torturous poetic license which is depicted in AHS (and reportedly, not all that far fetched)  enter the picture only when a criminal element does as well.   And for those with microcephaly, that IS the exception; not the rule.

This very real world is progress indeed and a far cry from the movie, Freaks,  circus sideshows in general and Schlitze’s 1940’s bio which basically exploited his “wide array of “talents” that included singing, dancing……and counting to ten.


  1. I saw Freaks ages ago. It was very disturbing and I don’t want to see it again.

    I like this season’s AHS, but not as much as the first season. I get their feeling the producers, writers, et al are more self conscious and just trying too hard.

  2. Hey, and Schlitzie could count to 10,except he always left out the number 7 (maybe 2 syllable words were hard to pronounce). One, two, three, four, five, six, eight, nine, TEN!!!! Yay, Schlitzie!!!!!!

  3. Reblogged this on HORROR BOOM and commented:
    Here’s a great post. Since Pepper the Pinhead on American Horror Story Asylum has probably been one of (if not the #1) top search term that lands horror fans on Horror Boom for the past month,I wanted to see how her make-up was done. This great post fro Laurie Kendrick briefly discusses that, but also the real life person Pepper is based on, Simon Metz (I never knew “Schlitze” was a man, hich is kind of embarassing since I consider myself a subject matter expert and big fan of the movie since I read about it in 1980. Then I discovered the Ramones connection and that took my obsession to a whole new level. I was actually too scared to see it after I read Stephen King’s vivid, horrifying description of the seminal film in his non-fiction book, Danse Macabre. At the time, I didn’t want to see anything that gave Stephen King nightmares. Anyway, I’ve read several books on what were oh-so-compassionately termed Freak Shows and the actual people who performed in them. This is a great read on the subject of the movie and “Schitze”. I have more information on the subject, but that’s for later, and Ms. Kendrick does a much better job here than if I worked on a piece full-time for a week. Check it out – and I agree. May Schlitze Surtees rest in peace. He’s more than earned it.

  4. I saw the movie Freaks for the first time back in the 80’s. I kind of.. strangly.. fell in love with it. Yes, it’s disturbing on many levels but the ‘freaks’ moved me. There was a beauty in their community and comradery. They weren’t ‘characters’, they were real people and I felt a real facination as well as respect for them. Thanks for telling Shlitze’s story, I didn’t know anything past the mental institution. Nice to know his life didn’t end in that place but with someone who loved him.

  5. Johnny Eck, the limbless man, ended up in Baltimore as a screen painter. I never saw any of his work, but apparently it was a folk art where people would have designs or scenes painted on their screen doors. He was still alive at least into the late 1970s/early 1980s. (Source: an artist girlfriend who corresponded with him.)

  6. Fascinating, well written post. But, can you change one sentence for me please? “Having microcephaly doesn’t automatically make one homicidal, but the patient will be mentally/emotionally disabled”. That sentence is not true. You can be but not always will be. I’m not mentally/emotionally disabled and I’m microcephalic. –

    Again, great post and interesting history!


  7. To back up what Jason said (though he clearly knows himself, and therefore really doesn’t even need backing) I just read another article that said that about 15% of microcephalic people have a perfectly normal IQ.

And now, you may opine your ass off...

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s